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油田节能技术(shu)

日期(qi): 2021-10-26
浏览次数: 128

  油田节能设备供应商提醒您:如今社会对于节能需求越来越高,碳达峰碳中和这个目标也逐渐进入群众的视线。提升创建绿色油气田的另一件大事是节能减排。能源消耗像个无形的魔爪,不断地掏空着地球,并向大自然喷云吐雾,把原本清纯美丽的大自然糟蹋得乌烟瘴气、锈迹斑斑。节约资源是中国的基本国策,所以节能减排是石油行业责无旁贷的使命。钻井、采油、油气集输、地面工程、石油化工等主要生产环节都在积极地进行节能减排工作。


  (1)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)机(ji)安上了(le)“节(jie)能(neng)心(xin)脏(zang)(zang)”。钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)机(ji)上常用的(de)(de)(de)(de)柴(chai)(chai)油(you)机(ji)可算是个(ge)“油(you)老虎”、“脏(zang)(zang)老虎”,要(yao)节(jie)能(neng)就必须在柴(chai)(chai)油(you)机(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)“食(shi)谱”上下(xia)功夫。“多吞气(qi)少(shao)喝(he)(he)油(you)”的(de)(de)(de)(de)柴(chai)(chai)油(you)/天然气(qi)双燃料(liao)大功率高效率发动(dong)机(ji)被誉为(wei)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)机(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)“节(jie)能(neng)心(xin)脏(zang)(zang)”。近(jin)几(ji)年钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)机(ji)动(dong)力的(de)(de)(de)(de)食(shi)谱还增加了(le)“油(you)改(gai)电”,就是把(ba)“喝(he)(he)油(you)”的(de)(de)(de)(de)柴(chai)(chai)油(you)机(ji)改(gai)造(zao)成(cheng)“吃电”的(de)(de)(de)(de)电动(dong)机(ji)。近(jin)几(ji)年,“油(you)改(gai)电”钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)机(ji)开(kai)始在油(you)田上使用,这种钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)机(ji)故障少(shao),污染(ran)小,既节(jie)约了(le)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)井成(cheng)本,又(you)降低了(le)噪声,减少(shao)了(le)钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)机(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)振(zhen)动(dong),有利于钻(zuan)(zuan)(zuan)井工人(ren)的(de)(de)(de)(de)健康(kang)。


  (2)抽油机装上了“节能脑”--抽油机变频器控制柜。由统计资料知道,采油能耗占油田总能耗的56%左右,其中机械采油、油田注水、稠油开采是三家耗能大户。对于机械采油,利用变频控制技术,对抽油机进行智能化改造,给抽油机装上了“节能脑”——变功率节能装置,根据抽油机驴头载荷的变化,利用软启动、自动调速、动态功率调节、制动节能等一系列技术手段,及时做到电动机需要多少电就送给多少电,解决了“大马拉小车”的问题,还可使下行程所产生的电能回馈到电网。近几年,油田上大量使用的“自变功率电动机”用电成本大幅度降低,技术改造紧紧地卡住了“电老虎”的咽喉,不但制服了高能耗,还让它乖乖地从地下抽取更多的原油。


  (3)强力注(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)水泵与高(gao)(gao)效(xiao)节(jie)能(neng)(neng)蒸汽(qi)锅炉(lu)。注(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)水系(xi)统用(yong)(yong)(yong)电量占(zhan)油田用(yong)(yong)(yong)电总量的(de)(de)30%左右,可(ke)以采用(yong)(yong)(yong)五(wu)柱塞强力注(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)水泵、提(ti)高(gao)(gao)注(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)水质量、改进注(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)水工艺(yi)等注(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)水节(jie)能(neng)(neng)减(jian)排的(de)(de)办法。稠油开采时因生(sheng)产蒸汽(qi)需要消耗大量燃料,注(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)气(qi)系(xi)统的(de)(de)节(jie)能(neng)(neng)高(gao)(gao)手就是高(gao)(gao)效(xiao)节(jie)能(neng)(neng)蒸汽(qi)锅炉(lu)。它(ta)采用(yong)(yong)(yong)了(le)(le)新型高(gao)(gao)温辐射涂料、烟(yan)气(qi)过剩空气(qi)量监(jian)控、烟(yan)气(qi)余热(re)回(hui)收等新技(ji)术(shu),有效(xiao)地改善了(le)(le)锅炉(lu)的(de)(de)燃烧状(zhuang)况,提(ti)高(gao)(gao)了(le)(le)生(sheng)产蒸汽(qi)的(de)(de)热(re)效(xiao)率。此(ci)外(wai),采用(yong)(yong)(yong)新技(ji)术(shu)纳米材料敷设注(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)蒸汽(qi)保温管线,可(ke)使(shi)注(zhu)(zhu)(zhu)气(qi)热(re)能(neng)(neng)利(li)用(yong)(yong)(yong)率提(ti)高(gao)(gao)20%以上(shang)。


  (4)油气在流动过(guo)程(cheng)中节(jie)能。传(chuan)统的(de)原油集输(shu)(shu)工艺是双管(guan)掺(chan)水和三管(guan)伴热(re)集输(shu)(shu),流程(cheng)复杂(za),能耗高。通(tong)过(guo)研究攻关(guan),采用原油常温集输(shu)(shu)也就(jiu)是“冷(leng)输(shu)(shu)”以达到节(jie)能目的(de)。


  (5)“老(lao)简新优”的大手术(shu)。为了开(kai)采石油,在油田(tian)的地面上构建(jian)了工程(cheng)连工程(cheng)、环节(jie)套环节(jie)的采油、集(ji)输和外运的庞(pang)大复杂的油气(qi)网络。因此,要(yao)节(jie)能(neng),就要(yao)对(dui)地面工程(cheng)系统开(kai)刀,执行“关、停(ting)、并(bing)、转、减(jian)”的简化措(cuo)施,即“老(lao)旧(jiu)设(she)备关停(ting),需要(yao)设(she)备并(bing)、转,尽量减(jian)少场站,缩短油气(qi)管(guan)线”。

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2018 - 01 - 17
从过去十几(ji)年电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)梯(ti)(ti)发(fa)展历程(cheng)来看,我国电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)梯(ti)(ti)产(chan)量(liang)一(yi)直保(bao)持稳步(bu)增长,预计(ji)2018年增长速度在15%-20%之间。随着技(ji)术的(de)不断(duan)发(fa)展和我国节(jie)能减排(pai)政策(ce)的(de)不断(duan)落(luo)实(shi),电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)梯(ti)(ti)节(jie)能与安(an)全已经成(cheng)为电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)梯(ti)(ti)发(fa)展的(de)方向,为配合《特种设(she)备(bei)(bei)安(an)全与节(jie)能事业(ye)发(fa)展“十三(san)五”规划(hua)》的(de)实(shi)施(shi),各(ge)地方政府(fu)纷(fen)纷(fen)出台电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)梯(ti)(ti)更(geng)(geng)换(huan)(huan)或改造(zao)计(ji)划(hua),将到期需(xu)更(geng)(geng)换(huan)(huan)的(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)梯(ti)(ti)通过更(geng)(geng)换(huan)(huan)或技(ji)术改造(zao)替换(huan)(huan)成(cheng)节(jie)能电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)梯(ti)(ti)。  电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)梯(ti)(ti)在运(yun)(yun)(yun)行过程(cheng)中安(an)全是最(zui)重(zhong)要的(de),备(bei)(bei)用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系统(tong)的(de)使用尤为关(guan)键,它(ta)可以确(que)保(bao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)梯(ti)(ti)在停(ting)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)以及突(tu)发(fa)状况时(shi)候可以正常运(yun)(yun)(yun)行,根据《居住(zhu)区供配电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)设(she)施(shi)建(jian)设(she)标准》规定(ding),多层(ceng)高层(ceng)的(de)住(zhu)宅用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)属于一(yi)级负荷(he)区域,用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)单位应(ying)自备(bei)(bei)应(ying)急电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)。但高层(ceng)建(jian)筑刚开始兴建(jian)时(shi),对这块(kuai)要求不够严(yan)格,很多高层(ceng)住(zhu)宅小区很少有备(bei)(bei)用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)或设(she)计(ji)双回路(lu)供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),也少有配备(bei)(bei)自用发(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)机的(de),双线供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)设(she)施(shi)不多。“没有备(bei)(bei)用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan),电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)梯(ti)(ti)运(yun)(yun)(yun)行会(hui)面临较(jiao)大的(de)安(an)全隐(yin)患。”业(ye)内人士表示,在停(ting)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)情况下启(qi)动备(bei)(bei)用电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan),能够使电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)梯(ti)(ti)恢复正常运(yun)(yun)(yun)行状态,而...
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